German States

german states


  • Size: 35,751 square kilometers
  • Capital: Stuttgart
  • Population: 11 million residents

The state of Baden-Wurttemberg is located in the southwest of Germany and it covers an area of 35,751 square kilometers. This region is home to around 11 million inhabitants with around 600,000 of them residing in the capital and the largest city in this state, Stuttgart. Forests cover a large portion of its relief while lakes are also a common trait of natural sights in Baden-Wurttemberg. The Danube, Europe’s second largest lake has its source in Baden-Wurttemberg. Despite it prides some large cities like Stuttgart, Freiburg, Manheim and Karlsruhe, the state of Baden-Wurttemberg is known as a rural region. Agriculture and forestry industry generate the most economic profit in this state.


  • Size: 70,550 square kilometers
  • Capital: Munich
  • Population: 12.9 million residents

In terms of size, Bavaria is the largest federal state of Germany and it comprises 70,550 square kilometers. Its capital and the biggest city at the same time is Munich or Munchen while around 13 million people reside in this region. The state of Bavaria has a long history dating back in 6th century AD when the area was occupied by the Holy Roman Empire. Until the 19th century, Bavaria was an independent state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria. Despite being an agricultural region around 50 years ago, today it is one of the most developed regions in the whole of Europe, counting numerous high tech and industrial companies. On the other hand, Bavaria didn’t lose its originality and it displays a lot of diversity. Thanks to this the tourism is highly developed in this area. Also, having had a role in different stages of German history the state carries traces of history even today. There are Disney-like castles build in different times, nature sceneries like the Alps and other touristic attractions.


  • Size: 891 square kilometers
  • Capital: Berlin
  • Population: 3.4 million residents

Berlin is amongst three city-states in Germany and the capital of the federation at the same time. It Located in the northeast of Germany it covers an area of 891 square kilometers. The city of Berlin was founded during the 13th century, but recent archaeological investigations suggest that the city might be older than that. According to official recordings, Berlin is home to around 3.4 million residents. Berlin is mainly characterized by a flat topography being part of the North European Plain. This indicates its climate which is characterized by modest summers and not so cold winters. In addition to being a strong economy and a governmental location in Germany, Berlin is also increasingly becoming a tourism hub. Wonderful sights you can find in the city-state of Berlin include the Brandenburg Gate,, the Berlin Cathedral, Berlin TV Tower, Victory Column etc. Thanks to the modern infrastructure and other ideal conditions Berlin is a perfect place to do business. In addition, its favourable position makes it a bridge between western and eastern Europe. Thus a large number of big companies are located in this area, bringing a lot of economic profit.


  • Size: 29,478 square km,
  • Capital: Potsdam
  • Population: 2.5 million residents

Brandenburg is located in the northeastern part of Germany completely surrounding the capital Berlin. It gained the status of a state in 1990. Covering an area of 29,478 square kilometers, Brandenburg is the fifth largest federal state in Germany. Around 2.5 million people reside in this region, mainly ethnic Germans making it the tenth most populous state in Germany. The capital and the biggest city at the same time in this region is Potsdam. The region is mostly known for its natural landscape and several UNESCO heritage sites. If you ever have the chance to visit this region you should definitely visit the Beech Forest. Gothic-like buildings are still present in the Brandenburg’s architecture.


  • Size: 419 square kilometers
  • Capital: Bremen
  • Population: 680,000 residents

Shortly referred to as Bremen due to its capital and the biggest city, the Free Hanseatic City-State of Bremen is located in the northern part of Germany.  It covers an area of 419 square kilometers and is habituated by around 680,000 residents. Its capital Bremen is regarded as the largest city in northern Germany and one of the largest ports in the whole country. The city-state of Bremen is dominated from lowlands with the average sea level being around 10.5 m. International and manufacturing companies contribute with the largest share of economic profit in this state. Bremen is also a center of culture with many museums and cultural gems being located around.


  • Size: 755.22 square kilometers
  • Capital: Hamburg
  • Population: 8 million residents

Hamburg is among city-states in the Federal Republic of Germany. Being home to around 1.8 million habitants and covering an area of 755 square kilometers Hamburg is the second largest city in Germany after Berlin and the eighth in Europe. The name of Hamburg is mostly associated with its port which is amongst the largest and the biggest in Europe. The climate in this city is closely indicated by Gulf air masses coming from the Atlantic Sea. Summers are warm with temperatures being around 17 grade Celsius on average and around 2 grade Celsius during the winter. Hamburg is one of the biggest industrial centers in Germany mainly known for copper, chemical and shipbuilding industries.


  • Size: 21,114 square kilometers
  • Capital: Wiesbaden
  • Population: 6 million residents

The Hesse state is situated in west-central Germany surrounded by Lower Saxony in the north, Thuringia to the east and Rhineland-Palatinate to the west. It covers 21,114 square km and counts over 6 million residents. Its geographical relief it is portrayed by highlands with mounting to the highest peak 950 meters at the Wasser Peak.  Electrical items, textile, steel manufacturing are among developed industries in this state.

Lower Saxony

  • Size: 47,641 square km
  • Capital: Hannover
  • Population: 8 million residents

Lower Saxony is the second largest constituent state of Germany, located in the northwestern part of the country. Its capital and the largest city is Hannover. Its land is dominated from the North German  Plain aside from some small highlands in the south. Winters in Lower Saxony are not too cold while summer days are warm. Rainfalls are a common trait of their climate throughout the year. Agriculture is the most developed economic sectors in this state, in contrast to most German states. Lower Saxony is also rich in beautiful natural sights which attract a large number of tourists.


  • Size: 23,174 square kilometers
  • Capital: Schwerin
  • Population: 1.6 million residents

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is a state located in the northeastern part of Germany. Though their history is long, the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is relatively young. This state was founded after World War II when Western Allies handed the territory to the Soviet Union in 1946. However, the state was divided again following some reforms in 1952 to reunite in 1990. Today, this part of Germany is home to 1.6 million residents. Its landscape is mainly characterized by hills and lowlands and over 1,700 lakes. There are several UNESCO heritage sites in this part of Germany. Tourism is one of the most developed economic sectors in this area, especially because its Baltic Sea coastline which extends for about 2,000 kilometers.

North Rhine-Westphalia

  • Size: 34,084 square kilometers
  • Capital: Dusseldorf
  • Population: 6 million residents

North-Rhine Westphalia is among 16 states that constitute the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located in the west of the country and it covers an area of 34,084 square kilometers. Around 17.6 million people reside in this territory. The capital is Dusseldorf while the largest city is Cologne. The state of North-Rhine Westphalia was created as a merger of two previous Prussian provinces after the Second World’s War ended in 1945. Its relief is pretty diverse but is mainly dominated by forests. The climate is determined by the state’s proximity to the North Sea and the Gulf Stream. Chemical manufacturing remains the most profitable economic sector in this area.


  • Size: 19,846 square kilometers
  • Capital: Mainz
  • Population: 4 million residents

The federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is situated on the western side of Germany, sharing international borders with three different countries: France, Belgium and Luxembourg. In total it covers an area of 19,846 square kilometers and counts around 4 million residents. Their capital and the biggest city at the same time is Mainz. Geographically Rhineland-Palatinate is a part of Rhine massif and it has an average elevation of 400 to 600 meters above the sea level. Their GDP is generated mostly from chemical manufacturing, commerce, transportation and agriculture.


  • Size:2,569 square kilometers
  • Capital: Saarbrucken
  • Population: 180,000 residents

Saarland is located in e west of Germany covers an area of 2,569 square kilometers. According to official recordings around 180,000 people reside in this area. Its capital and the largest economic center is the city of Saarbrucken which is located near the border with France.  The region has enjoyed a dynamic economic development highly because of its coal mining resources. Steel and iron manufacturing industries bring also a lot of profit to the local economy. Saarland has a highly developed infrastructure which is a major factor for maintaining trading links with partners in neighbouring German states and French cities on the other side of the border.  The clime in Saarland is mainly continental.


  • Size: 18,413 square kilometers
  • Capital: Dresden
  • Population: 4 million residents

The federal state of Saxony is located at the farthest eastern point of German territory. In this position, Saxon shares international borders with Poland and the Czech Republic. Its administrative territory comprises of 18,413 square kilometers while its population counts for around 4 million residents. The capital of Saxony in Dresden, but the largest city in this state is Leipzig.  The majority of its landscape, it’s composed of high hills and mountains, except a small portion of land on the north side. Microelectronics, manufacturing and mining share the largest portion of the economic contribution. Agricultural resources are of some importance too. Thanks to these unlimited resources, Saxony attracts numerous investment from government and private investors. As an indication of this, this area has one of the lowest rate of unemployment in entire Germany.


  • Size: 20,447 square kilometers
  • Capital: Magdeburg
  • Population: 2.4 million residents

Saxony-Anhalt is located in the east-central part of Germany. Covering an area of 20,447 square kilometers, Saxony-Anhalt is the eighth largest state in Germany. Also, this state is highly populous counting around 2.4 million residents. Its capital is the city of Magdeburg. The relief structure is mostly dominated by hills and mountains. Thanks to a fertile land and a welcoming climate, agriculture is one of the strongest economic sectors in this area. Important industries in Saxony-Anhalt include synthetics, automotive, renewable energy and food industry.


  • Size: 15,761 square kilometers
  • Capital: Kiel
  • Population: 2.8 million residents

The federal state of Schleswig Holstein is the northernmost part of Germany.  It covers an area of 15,761 square kilometers with a population of around 2.8 million residents. Their capital city is Kiel while other relevant cities in this area are Lubeck and Flensburg.  Geographically, this state is a place of huge contrasts. In the middle there are uplands, the eastern landscape is mainly dominated from the hills, through the east you’ll find non-cultivated lowlands, while in the north along the Baltic sea coastline you’ll encounter sheer cliffs. Shipbuilding, paper industry, machine construction and electrical engineering are the most important aspects of the local economy.


  • Size: 16,171 square kilometers
  • Capital: Erfurt
  • Population: 2.3 million residents

Situated in central Germany, the federal state of Thuringia covers an area of 16,171 square kilometers. Around 2.3 million people, mostly ethnic Germans, reside in this state making it the fifth smallest in terms of population. Their capital is the city of Erfurt, while other important urban centers include the cities of Jena, Gera and Weimar. Compared to most German federal states, Thuringia is relatively poor. Its industry is heavily dependent on metalworking, electrical, optical equipments, textile and biotechnology.

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